The 1900 census, dated 19 Jun 1900, shows the following entry in Chester Township, Arkansas County, AR:
Mitchell, Elizabeth W., Head, W, F, Dec 1844, 55, Widowed, 7 Children, 3 Living, TN(S), TN(F), TN(M);
Connor, Melvil E., Nephew, W, M, Jun 1887, 12, Single, AR(S), IN(F), TN(M), Farm Laborer.
_Henry HORNICKEL ____________+ | (1839 - 1895) m 1869 _Robert Peter HORNICKEL _| | (1886 - 1965) | | |_Fredericka Wilamena LEHMAN _ | (1845 - 1930) m 1869 | |--Living | | _____________________________ | | |_Anna BRANZ _____________| | |_____________________________
_Hugh Emmett WILSON _ | (1891 - 1936) _Living______________| | | | |_Emma Estell FORD ___+ | (1893 - 1936) | |--Living | | _____________________ | | |_Living______________| | |_____________________
_Hjalmer Oscar SODERHOLM _+ | (1888 - 1984) _Garvin John Norman SODERHOLM _| | (1924 - 1991) | | |_Selma Albertina JOHNSON _+ | (1896 - 1933) | |--Living | | _Roy T. HOLMQUIST ________ | | |_Living________________________| | |_Ellen ANDERSON __________
__ | _William COLLIER ____| | (1700 - 1759) | | |__ | | |--Sarah COLLIER | (1734 - ....) | __ | | |_____________________| | |__
Boyd, Alberthal and Denny Genealogy
Boyd, Alberthal and Denny Genealogy
Boyd, Alberthal and Denny Genealogy
Boyd, Alberthal and Denny Genealogy
_Frederick James CONNOR _+ | (1806 - 1873) m 1832 _Samuel Kyler CONNOR _| | (1836 - 1910) m 1862 | | |_Susan KYLER ____________ | (1814 - 1859) m 1832 | |--Frederick O. CONNOR | (1869 - 1870) | _________________________ | | |_Mary G. PROTZMAN ____| (1842 - 1875) m 1862 | |_________________________
 Cemetary listing shows Frederick O. being 1y, 3m, 2d of age at death, on 10 Nov 1870. That would make birth date about 8 Aug 1869. If age had been 1y, 8m,2d, that would make birth date about Mar 1869 which would match census record.
_____________________ | _Laban JENNINGS _____| | (1790 - 1850) m 1822| | |_____________________ | | |--Rebecca Anna JENNINGS | (1828 - 1885) | _James ? QUILAN _____ | | (1750 - ....) |_Elizabeth QUILAN ___| (1805 - 1851) m 1822| |_____________________
 5 pm
This is to Certify that I did Nov 13th at the residence of Thomas H West in the City of St Louis Join in the holy Bonds of Matrimony, Thomas Rutherford and Rebecca Ann Jennings - Attest Joseph Templeton Presly, Minister.
Filed for Recd Decr 5th 1844, Recorder
Missouri Birth & Death Records
St. Louis Marriages, 1804 - 1876
Marriage Record of St. Louis, Missouri
_Malcolm MAC-ALPIN I_+ | (.... - 0954) _Kenneth MAC-ALPIN II_| | (.... - 0995) | | |_____________________ | | |--Malcolm MAC-ALPIN II | (.... - 1034) | _____________________ | | |______________________| | |_____________________
_David ? MARTIN _____+ | (1750 - 1807) _James MARTIN _______| | (1779 - 1842) | | |_____________________ | | |--David MARTIN | | _Edward DICKEY ______ | | (.... - 1813) |_Anne DICKEY ________| (1782 - ....) | |_June ? _____________
 Type: Division of Land
_John RUTHERFORD Sr._+ | (1689 - 1789) m 1723 _Joseph RUTHERFORD Sr._| | (1732 - ....) m 1755 | | |_Violetta RENNOLDS __ | (1690 - ....) m 1723 | |--John RUTHERFORD | (1765 - ....) | _____________________ | | |_Sarah ________________| (1735 - ....) m 1755 | |_____________________
John had eight children. Was in Bourbon Co., KY by 1791.
1.James? b.c. 1788. Was married and living in St. Louis in 1830. Had daughter Nancy W.? who married Bavil Fisher, son of Henry Fisher [brother or other relative of John Fisher???]
2.Walker b.c. 1791, KY; m. 1814 Franklin Co., KY to Nancy Ann Carter.
3.Granville? b. 1793, Bourbon Co., KY; m. Rachael P. Eades [daughter Thomas Eades] 1814 Bourbon Co., KY.
4.Hugh b.c. 1795; m. 1816 to Elizabeth Blanton, daughter of James and Nancy (Warren) Blanton.
5.Polly b.c. 1797; m. 1815 to John Cook
6.daughter b.c. 1799
7.daughter b.c. 1801
8.daughter b.c. 1803
9.daughter b.c. 1805
 There was a Baptist Church called "Forks of Elkhorn", in which there was a John, Dinah, Elizabeth, Polly and Walker Rutherford. The minutes of the church just read, "Archibald Rutherford was in Jessamine, 1799."
John Rutherford & wife
John Rutherford was born about 1765, probably in Botetourt Co., VA, the son of Joseph and Sarah Rutherford. He came west to the Kentucky frontier with his parents while he was still in his teens and settled with them by 1782, when his father was a member of Capt. Boyle's Company of militia called into service to range on the frontiers from Carpenter's Bridge and Estill's Station under the orders of Col. Benjamin Logan. John was married by 1789 at the latest. He and his wife had at least eight children, possibly more.
By 1791, they were living in Bourbon Co., KY, where John was the only Rutherford listed on a tax list. Another John and Dudley Rutherford were in Lincoln Co., where our John's father lived, but this was either the John m. Mary Merryman or their son John. Their son Dudley was also listed.
John was listed on tax lists in Bourbon Co. in 1795 and 1800. In 1800, an Alexander Rutherford was also listed in Bourbon Co., KY.
1796 Bourbon Co Ky Tax List
He was probably also the John Rutherford listed in on the tax list in Franklin Co., KY in 1801. He may have also been the one in Lincoln Co.? His father, Joseph Rutherford, also to Franklin County from Lincoln) sometime between 1790 and 1799.
Franklin is two counties west of Bourbon [Scott is between them]. Frankfort is in Franklin, but close to the borders with Woodford and Anderson.
They were listed on the 1810 census in Franklin Co., KY, living in the vicinity of the Forks of Elkhorn Church.
The book "Forks of Elkhorn Church" by Ermina Jett Darnell, 1948, pp. 75-79, identifies a James and Nancy (Warren) Blanton as the parents of Elizabeth who married an unknown Rutherford. James was the son of Thomas III & Jane (Moore) Blanton.
Forks of Elkhorn Church.
With Genealogies of Early Members Reprinted with Numerous Additions and Corrections
Ermina Jett Darnell
xvii + 322 pp., Indexed. Illus. (1946), 2000. ISBN 0806308834.
Temporarily out of print.
More About This Book:
Situated near the conjunction of Franklin, Woodford, and Scott counties, Kentucky, the Elkhorn Church was a magnet for persons of the Baptist faith who had suffered under the established church in Virginia. Several hundred families are traced here by means of entries in the old minute book, family Bibles, wills, land records, tax lists, census records, and in a variety of other sources.
FORKS OF ELKHORN BAPTIST CHURCH
This church had its origins from the famous "Traveling Church," lead by the Rev. Lewis Craig who pastored the Upper Spotsylvania Baptist Church, Spotsylvania Co, VA. In 1781 this church, at the instigation of their pastor, left Virginia where they had endured persecution, and began the difficult journey to Kentucky. On arrival, they settled at Gilbert's Creek, a tributary of Dick's River, in Garrard County. It was the 3rd Baptist congregation to be formed in Kentucky.
An excellent book on the history of the church is Forks of Elkhorn Church by George W. Ranck. The church was located on the site of the present brick church building southeast of Frankfort and northeast of Lexington.
The Forks of Elkhorn is located at the forks of the Elkhorn Creek a few miles east of Frankfort . The area borders the counties of Woodford and Scott.
Situated in a bend of the Kentucky River, the Elkhorn became a main source for navigation for early settlers to this area. In 1819, the Legislature approved an act to establish a group of men to survey the conditions and improve navigation on the Elkhorn.
Legend has it, once there was an Indian maiden in love with a young brave, although she was betrothed to his father, the chief. The young brave, determined that she was his, wrapped her in his blanket. They mounted the back of a friendly elk and fled. They rode for days, always pursued by the angry chief. When they reached Kentucky the elk was shot by the old chief's arrow. As the elk lay dying, he used his horns as a shield and the chief gave up the pursuit. The young couple would spend their lives in this valley. As years passed, the elks horns sank into the ground forming indentations that filled with a flowing stream of water the Indians called Elkhorn.
History of Kentucky counties:
In 1780 Franklin County was a part of all three of Kentucky's original counties. The part of Franklin County north or east of the Kentucky River was in Fayette County. Land south or west of the Kentucky River and land south of Benson Creek was in the county of Lincoln. The portion of land west of the river and north of Benson Creek was in Jefferson County.
By 1792, nine counties had been formed from the three original counties of Fayette, Lincoln and Jefferson. Finally in 1794 the county of Franklin was formed from parts of Woodford, Mercer and Shelby. An act by the Kentucky Legislature on May 10, 1795 established Franklin County as the eighteenth Kentucky county.
In 1799, a portion of Franklin County was removed to form Gallatin County and in 1819 a portion was again taken to form Owen County. In 1827, for the third and last time, a portion of Franklin County was taken to form the county of Anderson.
Franklin County, located in the central Bluegrass region of Kentucky, was named in honor of Benjamin Franklin. The city of Frankfort, named for "Frank's Ford", was founded in 1786. It serves as county seat and the State Capital of Kentucky.
1810 census, Franklin Co., KY, page 161
John Rutherfordone male aged 26-44John
one female aged 26-44wife
two males aged 16-25Walker and possibly Granville
one male aged 10-15Hugh
two females aged 10-15two daughters
three females aged under 10three daughters
Another small Rutherford family was living nearby. John had a sister Susanna. Maybe she never married?
Susanna Rutherfordone female aged over 44Susanna
one female aged 26-44relative or housekeeper?
At some point, their son Walker would be licensed to keep a tavern in Franklin County at the crossroads on the main road leading from Frankfort to Lexington for a period of one year. The court order reads: "… the Said Rutherford is a man of Good Character and will probably keep an orderly house."
A John Rutherford died 1815 in St. Louis. Could this have been him?
Probate papers for John Rutherford "late a private of Capt Taylor's campaign":
http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/stlprobate/images.asp?id=2264&party=RUTHERFORD,%20JOHN&case=00184&date=1815&reel=C%2027453# bondsmen James Kennerly (administrator), Thomas , and Risdon H. Price, Joshua Barton,
Risdon H PRICE was born in , , , (MD).
He was married to Mary BISSELL on 30 Aug 1815. Children were: Frederick PRICE.
Mary BISSELL died on 25 Jan 1845. She was buried in Bissell Cem, , St Louis Co, MO. Parents: Daniel BISSELL General and Deborah ----.
She was married to Risdon H PRICE on 30 Aug 1815. Children were: Frederick PRICE .
3 John Rutherfords in KY. This is only good fit
GALATIN Co., KY [only Rutherford in county]
One male 45+John
One female 45+wife
Two males 18-25Hugh and ?
One female 16-25
One female 10-15
One female under 10
THE MCPHEETERS FAMILY By Helen McPheeters Rice 1956 NARRATION (Pages 1-14)
The Early Ancestry of the McPheeters families and their related lines can be traced back through Ireland to their original home in Scotland. The history of these families is closely linked with the early days of the Protestant movement in Scotland. The struggles of the new faith produced men of determination and fortitude., men who would sacrifice even their lives in defense of their convictions.. Among the clergy who were prominent in resisting coercion.. the Rutherfords and the Alliens were leaders in Scotland and England. The Campbells, Walkers, Logans, Moores and many others were staunch followers of this cause. During the religious troubles of Great Britain from the reign of Henry VIII to William III, these Scotch families chose to leave their native land rather than compromise their religious beliefs. North Ireland was convenient and available for settlement.
But their sojourn in Ireland was brief. They soon found again restraints against their religious observances; tithes and taxes were levied upon them to support an established church other than their own, and they were even threatened with physical violence by their unfriendly neighbors. In the midst of this animosity, they remained aloof from mixture with the Irish; hence the term "Scotch-Irish" denotes simply this group of Scotsmen who lived for a time in Ireland. Their quest for a permanent home finally led them to America.
The Scotch-Irish Settlers landed on the banks of the Delaware River. Some chose to stay in what is now the state of Pennsylvania, but the majority found that they were still too close to their neighbors. Now we who are their descendants boast of our independence of spirit, self reliance, strict code of honor and many other admirable traits; yet we must also admit that these early settlers were noted for unbending stubbornness and sour temper. They just did not get along well with other people. So they pushed on farther into the interior and found the beautiful valley of the Shenandoah protected on both sides by mountain ranges, secluded and remote. It was here that they established their new home.
Located as they were., on the frontier, isolated from the rest of the colonies, these hardy people took care of themselves. They formed companies of volunteers and maintained them at their own expense scarcely recognized by the Virginia Assembly. They often had to defend themselves against the Indians; in the summer of 1758 alone there were 60 white persons massacred in their homes. These Scotch-Irish settlers supplied many experienced riflemen in the French and Indian Wars. Their knowledge and understanding of Indians and their familiarity with frontier environment made them valuable fighters.
The military record of the-Scotch-Irish of Augusta County, Virginia, during the Revolutionary War shows their staunch support of the cause for independence. For a time, their traditional urge of intense loyalty held them to the crown in spite of the injustices they had suffered in the past. But when they finally realized that it was time to join the other colonists in their resistance against the increasing oppression, they threw themselves into the fight with all the rock-bound determination for which they have always been justly famed.
One incident is related about Rev. Archibald Scott. On a quiet Sunday evening, the inhabitants learned that the British were approaching Rockfish Gap. Rev. Scott at once turned his meeting into a patriotic one, invoking his people "in thrilling tones to drive back the invader." He hurried the wives and daughters home to prepare their men. "They marched forth with the blessings and under the command of their patriotic pastor who hesitated not to exchange the Bible for the sword and saddle." (From "The Scotch-Irish Settlers in the Valley of the Virginia", an Alumni address at Washington College, Lexington, Virginia, by Christian of Staunton, published 1860.) Among the Scotch-Irish soldiers from Rev. Scott's congregation were doubtless several of the McPheeters family.
After the Revolutionary War, the call of the new lands beyond the Cumberland Mountains, coupled with economic developments, resulted in many of these Scotch-Irish-Americans again searching for new homes. Their routes led them into and through the area of the Cumberland Gap, some dropping down into the Tennessee Valley, but most of them into eastern and central Kentucky. A generation or so later many of them scattered into Indiana, Illinois and Missouri.
[It now appears our Rutherfords were Baptists, as both John's brother Larkin who went to St. Louis and St. Clair Co., IL was a Baptist, as was John's son James who went to St. Louis.
Info about Presbyterians in Bourbon Co., KY
The Paris Presbyterian Church U.S. (Southern) 1866-1961
After the war when the Paris Church divided into the Northern (U.S.A.) and Southern (U.S.) Churches, Mr. Davies who had been pastor of the United Church since 1863 went with the Southern group and served as pastor until his resignation in 1865.
In September 1868 Rev. Lindsay H. Blanton accepted the call of the congregation and served for twelve years until 1880 when he was called to become Chancellor of Central University in Richmond. During his pastorate a beautiful new church building was erected which served the congregation until 1916 when it was destroyed by a severe windstorm.
In 1881 Rev. L. H. Blanton was succeeded by Rev. E. H. Rutherford who served until his death in 1908. Dr. Rutherford's pastorate of twenty-seven years was one of the long pastorates of the church. [E. H. Rutherford came from St. Louis]
Soon after the death of Dr. Rutherford, Dr. B. M. Shive came in the fall of 1908 and served until his resignation in 1915 to accept a position with Oglethorpe University in Atlanta.
Mr. Davies continued pastor of the church in connection with the Southern General Assembly, until 1868, when he resigned the charge, and a call was extended to Rev. L. H. Blanton, now Chancellor of Central University, which was accepted and he was installed as pastor. In 1869-70, the present splendid church edifice was built, and in November, 1870, the church was dedicated, the dedicatory sermon being delivered by Rev. Dr. J. C. Sthes. About the same time the Synod of Kentucky met in Paris. During the pastorate of Dr. Blanton, the church membership was largely increased, and great activity was observable in the promotion of all the interests of the church. It was a working pastor, and an active, working, giving church. During the twelve years of Mr. Blanton's ministry, the large sum of $75.000 was collected, including the amount subscribed to build the church. The ladies were especially active, and prepared and published a book, entitled "Cooking in the Blue Grass," from the sale of which they realized several thousand dollars. Mrs. A. E. Randolph, now a missionary in China, went from this church, which has contributed liberally to the cause of foreign missions. Dr. Blanton resigned in 1880, and was succeeded by Mr. Sumrall, who served as stated supply for several months. In the spring of 1881, the congregation extended a unanimous call to Rev. Dr. E. H. Rutherford, of St. Louis, Mo. The call was accepted, and Dr. Rutherford in May, entered upon the duties of pastor.
Author: Dale Rahfeldt
Donated by Anna Clay Rutherford from WKR's research papers, Transcribed by Anna Marie Rahfeldt June 4, 2002
copywrited by unknown
Anciently a strongly-built, dark-haired people lived in Scotland until, from Southwestern Germany came Celts to the British Isles with bronze tools and Gaelic about 1000 years before Christ. These mixed, but fair-haired, light-skinned people predominated over the shorter earlier, and later Roman, people until the first century A.D. Tacitus, the Roman historian, tells of appallingly heavy-handed treatment of the rebellious Celtic Queen Boadicea by the corrupt Nero about A.D. 62, the year of her death. Nero suppressed these revolts with heavy British losses, but oppossion so continued that the cruel Domitian sent General Agricola to defeat the mementarily united Scottish Highland chiefs in A.D. 83 or 84. Peace still did not prevail, so Hadrian built a fortified wall, across the Cheviot Hills of Northern England, just several miles south of what was to become Jedburgh, thus excluding the rebellious Celts. Another fortified wall was soon to be built 50 miles north of the first wall by Antoninus Pius about A.D. 142 to 143, as the only expansion of the Roman Empire during this period, thus Romanizing Archie's Ancestors. Still the free minded men of North Scotland rebelled and Emperor Septimius Severus invaded the area in A.D. 209, as part of a resurgent expansionism. During this period Legions 6 and 9 were stationed at York about 170 miles south of the second wall and 100 miles south of the Jedburg area, which was very near the path these troops used between Edinburgh and York. Notwithstanding the presence of the Romans their influence was slight. In Archie could be seen this repugnance of domination and, if latter Rutherfords are indicative, the height of these fierce and "troublesome" Celts.
Early in the 400's, Rome requested her troops, and the German Anglos, Saxons and Jutes arrived to "protect" the Britons from the fierce families of the North. Meanwhile in the North, the Scots came from Ireland giving this new land their name. St. Augustine landed in Kent in 597 A.D. and by 664 A.D. the British Isles were universally Catholic. In 844, these Scots claimed the throne of the Picts (the Roman name for these tattooed Celts), and by 900 they ceased to be a separate race. Of border war there was no end. King Duncan (1034-1040) the first historically known king of Scotland, was murdered by Macbeth, whose reign ended with death in battle in 1057. Then followed Duncan's son, Malcolm III (Malcolm Ceannmor) who in 1061 at Forfar, 100 miles north of Jedburgh ordered his principle subjects to adopt permanent surnames. Jedburgh had been established about 830 on the Jed River, north of the Cheviot Hills and Hadrian's Wall, probably on a tributary of the Tweed River. There are four stories of the origin of "Rutherford": one resulting from the adoption of a name as ordered by Malcolm III, second as the name given by a legendary King Ruther to a young man who helped him cross the Tweed at the ford, third as resulting from a family's reputation as "rue the ford" or to rule the river's ford, fourthly referring to one who was red and at the ford. All of these are geographically oriented names, and thus would not develop until the geography had begun to settle or about the time of Malcolm III, though the people and the region's character could well be much more ancient. This is at least inferable from the act of witnessing a royal charter in 1140 by "Robert, the Lord of Rodyrforde" and the existence of an orle on the shield indicates participation in border defense and martlets inferring participation in the Crusades. So this second period made Archie's Ancestors Scot, defend the borders, Christian, Crusaders and Rutherfords.
From 1140, the first appearance of the name in records until Robert Rutherford Sr. came from Scotland to Virginia there were 18 generations including Robert and a span of more than 500 years. Monastic records of land grants to monasteries prove both the ancestory and their religiousity and local importance. Robert begat Gregory, who begat Hugo, who begat Nicholas, who begat Nicholas, Jr., who begat Robert, Who begat Richard, who begat William, who begat Richard an ambassador to England in 1398, who begat Robert who helped defeat the English for one of the last times on the morning of August 15, 1388 by signaling with a fox tail at the Battle of Otterbourne, who begat George, who begat George (d..1499) who begat Patrick of Nesbit, who begat John of Roxburgh CO. a rebel in 1506, who begat John, who begat Andrew of Hall, who begat Adam. Adam had enough wealth to loan the equivalent of 50 lbs. Of silver. He was a maker of beer and represented Jedburgh. His son Robrt was baptized in 1640, but Adam died n 1648.
None of the Rutherfords who came to America before Archie's birth, of whom we have any knowledge, appear to have had much wealth and thus explains the family's apparent decline from the aristocracy of Southern Scotland. According to Kenneth Rutherford's Book (1969) 7 Rutherfords came from Ireland and were all related to several Presbyterian ministers who had left Scotland under pressure. Traditional the younger sons went into the ministry or military since the estates were passed to the first born. Being not the first born also explains why Robert Rutherford Sr. and his line does not appear as wealthy as the landed gentry. The practice of primogenitur, which continued until Governor Jefferson abolished it about 1778, meant in effect that the estates could not be broken up, due to being held in trust until the firstborn was old enough to feel as his father's felt. By destroying this old practice thousands of Scotch-Irish in western Virginia could vote. Since most official records deal with land, this also explains why so few records remain of the many Rutherfords who were here before the Revolution. Not being firstborn, they were as good as not-born. Kenneth Rutherford (1969) also discovered 7 other early Rutherfords. John arrived in the Warwicke Ship in 1621, Richard died 1652 in Lower Norfolkd CO., Virginia, Henry died September, 1668 in New Haven, Connecticut; Gavin was in Maryland in 1670, and a William born in 1736 in Scotland died in Essex CO., Maryland about 1776. Then there was George (350) who was in Jamaica during the middle 1700's and who might have had children come to America. Thomas arrived here about 1716 to serve 7 years of labor for rebellion and may have left children (367). Thus until land and its records became available widely and the keeping of such records was encouraged by a nation i.e. after the Revolutionary War, the lives of many were destined to be unrecorded and soon forgotten.
(There were 5 or 7 brothers who came to America and settled in different parts of the county.)
We do not know who came with Robert to America or who he met here, but by 1650 there were 52,000 people on the continent and 275,000 by 1700. By 1750, about the time of Archie's birth there were a million of us and 3,227,900 after the war when our first census was taken in 1790.
By 1676 Robert (280) and his wife Margaret Vawter were in Sittenburn Parish, Rappahannock CO., VA. In August 4, 1684, he was appointed constable and in May, 1686 he was ordered to pay tax on his plantation. Then he is next found witnessing a will in Essex CO., VA, December 2, 1711, and his name appears as late a August 21, 1728 in Essex County, at which time he would be 88. Never again is he found in the records, but from Scotland he had brought and settled his family in Essex CO., at St. Ann's Parish, VA.
(Cromwell's rule in Britain gave the colonists great freedom from 1652 to 1660, but repression followed the return of a royal governor and rule by a "Tidewater Aristocracy". This lead to a tax revolt called Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 by the upcountry men. Perhaps this sentiment motivated Robert's refusal.)
Virginia life left something to be desired. Virginia being a Crown Colony was completely controlled by the Crown of Britain, with Crown laws and Crown judges etc. Still the British provided the common law, which gave some personal rights; a postal system and free intercolorial trading; and above all protection from pirates and Indians.
It is not known whether Robert Sr. married here or in Scotland, but he had several sons that we know about. Robert Jr. (d. 1725) and John Jr. (d. 1742) stayed in Essex County, but their children didn't. Patrick who was probably a son of Robert Sr. went to Orange CO., North Carolina. Adam, named for his grandfather settled in Louisa and neighboring Goochland Counties, and died in 1761. James moved further south into Lunenburg and Brunswick counties and died in the former in 1759, after receiving 1000 acres grant, and becoming Presbyterian. Robert Jr., the fifth son of the proposed family may have been the oldest because he died first in 1725, in Essex County.
In Essex CO., Robert Jr. (362) appears to have had six sons. It is these six sons who during the colonial period before the War of Independence established families in different sections of Virginia, except for James, who dying in South Carolina in 1797 may have lived there some time, perhaps with his cousins 481 and 482. Three sons, died in Frederick County, Virginia: Capt. Thomas (d. 1768), Reuben (d. 1764), Benjamin (d. 1803), Benjamin was also sheriff and Lutherin. Joseph (d. 1788) in Rockingham, close to Frederick County but had been active in Essex, and neighboring Cumberland and Goochland Counties. Joseph, Reuben, and John who is our ancestor had all been in Augusta County between 1750 to 1765 or so. John Rutherford who was born about 1689 in Essex, County, St. Anns Parish and was probably our primogenetur.
We can speculate that opposition to the doctrine of primogenetur motivated John Rutherford to release his right to administer his father's estate, as first born, in 1725 in Essex CO. This John (469) though was a beginner of many things throughout his many years. At 35, in 1727, he married Violetta Reynolds in Essex County, Vir. And had a son about that year named William Sr. Whether Violetta was the first or second wife is not known, but is perhaps the second in the light of his age, and that many years later he married for what he said was the third time. He may therefore have had two families. At any rate, John Jr. (598) was born 1735, in Cumberland County says Kenneth Rutherford. For sure, John Sr. had moved his family to Cumberland County, which is about 45 miles west of Richmond and about 75 miles from Essex County southwardly,because in 1751, the Episcopal Church ordered him to organize a precinct there. Apparently he was a reliable Episcopalian for he was trusted enough to be so ordered, and on 5-16-1752 he reported that his son William had left the precinct. Of course it could be surmised that he may have been reluctant since he was told to organize. Until 1776, all persons of property had to attend Episcopal Church services.
John Sr. thus took his family to Cumberland County between 1727 and 1751. His son William stayed until the next spring, for William witnessed his father's signature 11-25-1751, but was gone by the following May, when he would be about 25, but his father or perhaps brother levied a claim against his estate in Feb., 1758. Then it was dismissed, just as William's suit against his brother John Jr. had been in 1753.
John Sr. and Jr. continued actively in Cumberland County, buying and selling property, until 1754 when John Sr. moved to Augusta County to join his son, no doubt, William, who had bought 428 acres on Cripple Creek June 20, 1753. John Sr. bought and sold 237 acres on the Willis River in Cumberland County, selling it 12-11-1752. John still held on to a 130 acre plot and may have spent the next year on it, or joined William on his new 428 acre tract. In 1754, h bought 300 acres on Wood's River in Augusta County from his brother-in-law Col. Woods, and by June 10, of 1755 he sold the old plot in Cumberland County. Thus in 1754, John Sr. at 65 held 300 acres in Augusta CO. on the Willis River and William at 27 held 428 acres on Cripple Creek in Augusta County. Back then, Augusta was probably larger than today but in 1754 there were only 6 families west of New River (Mont. CO. today) and two of these were on Cripple Creek, in what is today Wythe CO. When the French War came, families retreated to the east bank i.e. Montgomery County.* This was a sparce land they settled! Meanwhile, John Jr. stayed in Cumberland County where he was a juror in 1753 and 1757. In this latter year, he became licensed to keep a tavern and another at Merryman's in 1759, but in the same year he was sued for serving second quality drinks!
Kenneth Rutherford's research indicates that a Joseph 599, a Larkin 601 and a Benjamin 602 may also have been sons of John Sr., but much less is known of them. Larkin had a son born in Goochland CO. Jan. 22, 1758, and a daughter there in 1759 and he witnessed a will there in Jan. 17, 1761. Alexander Bruce's Will was probated in Augusta County 3-13-1770 and it mentioned John Jr. and Benjamin both of who may hve been with their father or a friend before he went to Augusta County, for there is no other indication that they lived in Augusta. By the time of this will changes had begun,
Goochland County lies on the north bank of the Rivanna River, bordered on the south by Cumberland County, and running up to Augusta County through Albemarle County. William had been in Albemarle as early as 1763 for Archie's brother Absalom was born there (an perhaps Archie), but on Tuesday, the 15th of June, 1773 he bought 292 acres on both sides of River Creek, a branch of the Rivanna River. Larkin 601 had sold 100 acres in Cumberland County 4-15-1771 and so was William to do apparently for the next year all members of the family, with the exception of Larkin seem to have established themselves in what is now Wythe CO. on a branch of Cripple Creek. At 75 years of age, John Sr. was said to have left Augusta CO. by 8-15-1764. He could have spent the next years back in Cumberland with John Jr., who was probably still there with his tavern, but this adventuresome old man more likely went to William's spread in Albemarle County for William was there the prior year.
John Rutherford, Sr. is now 84, but on Tuesday, July 6, 1773 he is found in Fincastle County, which was the Virginia frontier until 1776, and Montgomery was cut out of it and Wythe in 1790. This was barely 3 weeks after William's new plot was filed. No doubt there were others now forgotten who played a role, but later that year on December 16, Benjamin, who was probably a son, recorded 273 acres on a branch of Cripple Creek. Now began the migration. The following February 5, 1774, John Jr. 598, surveyed 118 acres on a branch of Cripple Creek by virtue of permission he received December 16, 1773, the day his brother Benjamin had recorded his acreage. William and Joseph must have been helping them farm for in May 3, 1774 they were both jurors in Fincastle CO., and William was frequently such at the court held at Fort Chiswell. So from Cumberland, Augusta and Albemarle Counties had been brought a family to wage a War of Independence from tyranny, just as their ancestors had done before on the borders of Scotland.
* Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Virginia, Charleston, S. C. , 1845, 544 pages. This p. 499.
Although Benjamin 602 is attributed with participating in Lord Dunmore's War (1774) of repression of colonists, this hardly seems consonant with the family's traditional resistance to domination and the westward migration, especially since this Benjamin is found 180 miles away in Goochland County.
Wednesday morning on the green at Lexington, April 19, 1775, the shot was fired heard 'round the world, eight lay dead, and it was almost eight years 'til time for travel would come again for this family. Ft. Chiswell, west of Cripple Creek was occupied, and although there were many Rutherfords in the region, only 4 sons, and they all sons of William 597 seem to have fought in our War of Independence. Records may be lost and many were probably too young, but this inequality begs for explanation.
Archie enlisted, probably in Wythe CO., in the 7th Virginia Regiment, which was under Brig. Gen. Woodford, sometime after Feb., 1776 for that is when McClanachan was promoted and Archie mentioned that he was a Colonel, as commander of the as he later became March 22, 1777. Though he enlisted for just two years, he apparently stayed longer for he said the he "continued in the service of his country fighting the common enemy from the time aforesaid till sometime in the year 1779 when he was discharged, and his wife said that she understood him to have served "two years or more." Since Archie didn't elaborate, it's hard to know exactly which battles he was part of, but we do know from the dates that he could NOT have been at Yorktown when Cornwallis surrendered, as Bettie Blaine Rutherford said. Apparently many regiments were right General Washington and few distinguished themselves individually. From the dates of service, we can deduce that Archie probably was present from the time of Washington's routing by the English Gen. Howe at New York, which was part of the English plan to divide the northern and southern colonies. This was in November of 1776 and/Trenton (Christmas, 1776), Brandywine (Sept., 1777, Del.), would be followed by Germantown (Oct., 1777, Penn.) and Valley Forge (Dece., 18, 1777 to June, 1778).
What happened during this period, to Archie, is not known, but we know that his General Woodford was present at the above battles. At Germantown, as the British were retreating toward Philadelphia, Archie, as part of Gen. Woodford'' Brigade started pursuit, but was stopped by very heary musketry from an old house along the way. (Lossing, Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution) At Valley Forge, the regiments, which totaled about 11, 800 men as contrasted to the 34,000 British, were encamped by regiments in an arc from what is now the bridge to Norristown across the Schuylkill, to a covered bridge on Valley Creek, a branch of the Schuylkill. Along this arc were stationed the Continentals behind trenchs. General Woodford's regiments were between the covered bridge and what is now Devon Road. Across that road several hundred feet was Geneal Scott's Bridgade of three regiments, one of which was the 12th, Virginia, commanded by Col. James Wood, a distand relative of Archie's and in whose regiment was Julius Rutherford, Archie's only brother then in the war, though Absalom and perhaps Randolph later joined.
"In the summer of the year 1776, in the county of Wythe in the State of Virginia, I enlisted as a private in the company commanded by Captain Matteson under Col. James Wood of the 12th. Virginia Regiment", said Julius Rutherford 42 years later in Tenn., when applying for a pension. He also said that he "was in the battle of Brandywine and several skirmishes… and that a "brother of his, to wit Archibald Rutherford was part of the time in the 10th. Virginia Regiment and saw (Julius) in service." Julius enlisted for three years and though there would have perhaps been many occasions when he could have ":run into him" the longest stay when they would be closest together was at Valley Forge, during that terrible winter. Surely Julius must have been mistaken about Archie being in the 10th. For it was many years later, and Julius had lost contact with Archie, by his own admission. Possibly Archie had literally been in the 10th. "part of the time." At any rate, all were there on May 7, a Thursday at 9 A.M. when parade was held, gun was shot to celebrate the just announced military alliance with France. (Carrington, Battles of the American Revolution 1775-1781, 1904, pgs. 712, p. 404.)
Gen. Scott's brigade, in which was Julius was also affected by the delaying action at Germantown noted above, and no doubt referred to by Julius those many days later in Tenn. When he asked for help. In Feb., 1777 Congress made John Muhlenberg a Brig. General and ordered him to command all the Virginia Continental troops, which he did make his own moves independently even after joining Washington at Middlebrook in May, 1778 and on till the end of the war. Thus some of the history may be traced through his exploits. (Lossing, supra. P. 177)
In extreme heat, and dust ankle deep, Washington chased, the new British General Clinton who had abandoned Philadelphia and was rushing to New York. It was Sunday, June 28, at Wenrock Ck., Monmouth County, N.J. The generals over Archie and Julius were under General Lee, as was about half of our forces. Lee was court marshaled for his disobedience to Washington's orders here by retreating and thereby endangering the Continent and troops, especially Julius for Gen. Scott's brigades had been forced to advance and retreat several times before noon. Gen. Woodford's brigades along with the bulk of the army were on a slight bluff poised for an ensuing engagement when they were met about 11 am with the retreating troops under Gen. Lee. The first skirmishes had begun about 8 am on this buff and were partially lead by 600 crack troops from Gens. Scott and Woodford, in which perhaps, though unlikely, were Archie and Julius.
About noon, attack was begun again down over the bluff to fight an unwilling enemy. Perhaps Julius and Archie were together then, but later in the day they were not, for by dusk, Gen. Scott's brigade was close behind part of the English line and Gen. Woodford's were caught in the low area into which they had descended with British troops on another rise in front of them which Gen. Lee had held and abandoned that morning wrongly thinking the entire British army was attacking. On this sandy field that Sunday evening slept some for the last time, a weary General Washington anxious and sure of morning victory, and Archibald Rutherford. During the deep sleep of the patriots, Clinton had quietly achieved a three h our advance toward his goal, thus snatching victory away for the second time that day, but perhaps saving Archie's life unknowingly.
Monmouth was a heated battle with three skirmishes besides in which Gen. Scott's troops had battled and it may have been Julius' most trying and memorable engagement of the war.
Though deduction is uncertain, seemingly, Archie was "honorably discharged" in early 1779 for that's the year he gave and is consonant with a term of "two years or more." Early 1779 proved very difficult economically. Several thousand enlistments expired the end of 1778 and thousands more during the spring, plus the Congress couldn't even pay support for those still in the field. So, Archie, who may have developed his "crushed knee", which he said he had in 1821, in the army, left honorably. During this spring, the generals in the south had been requesting aid, for the English had turned to the South and were intent on the capture of Augusta. The only help available was to allow "regulars" assigned to the Southern Division to return from the north. It may have been on this or some other path that Archie earned the right to a 6 shilling reimbursement given him for expenses several years later at a Montgomery CO. (May 8, 1782) along with a John Rutherford in the same amount..This story appears in Annals of South West Virginia (p. 771) but faulty pronoun reference prevents knowing if the reimbursement was for action at a Reedy Fork in N.C., which seems unlikely in light of Archie's discharge and that General Green didn't even go to N.C. until Nov., 1779. So Archie couldn't have been rushing to meet action there. Generals Weedon (10th. Vir.) and Muhlenberg had been sent to Virginia during the summer and may have had the 5th. Vir. with them in which Archie would now find himself sine the 7th. Vir. was amalgamated with it in September, 1778. It's quite possible that this was another Archie or that this action was unrelated to his regular service. Whether this 6 shillings John was a brother of Archie, or cousins isn't known.
Archie had been in one of the maligned "Continentals", while Julius was in one of the "regular" armies. The Continentals were continually changing and thus not as practiced or reliable, as those in the regulars. It was part of the regular divisions that were sent to the south in the summer of 1779 and Julius may have been in those numbers. If he stayed in the north, after Archie was discharged, he would have marched with General Washington to Stony Point, NY of the Hudson chasing Clinton, which seems the more likely since he said he was discharged at a village in Pennsylvania. Julius' last months in the army were spent guarding prisoners, and this delayed his discharge by two or three months, he said in his pension application.
Since Julius served under Col. James Wood, and since these officers during the war were elected, and since James Wood was a Colonel from 11-12-1776 and since Julius was in three years two or three months, he was discharged probably late 1779 or more likely February, 1780. According to "baby" brother he returned home to his father Williams farm in Wythe County, VA. (Source? Some pension application but it wasn't in Julius', perhaps Absalom or Randolph). He would thus be home for crop planting in spring of 1780.
Later that year, after crops were planted, younger brother Absalom Rutherford, who was about 17 joined the struggle, perhaps because he was just now old enough, or could only now be spared, or because of the storyies of Germantown, Monmouth and adventure told by older brothers Archie and Julius. The British had begun concentration of efforts in the South and so under General Green Absalom served at Cowpens, SC (Jan., 1781), Guilford Court House, NC (March, 1781), Camden, SC (May, 1781), Ninety-Six, SC (May to June, 1781), Eutaw Springs, SC (Sept., 1781), and no doubt was at Yorktown, VA for the surrender of Cornwallis October 19th, a Friday, 1781. Discharge was 18 months after enlistment and at Salifbury, NC (pension and deduction). He stated that he returned home to Montgomery (now Wythe CO.) and stayed there some time, though he eventually died in Knox CO., Tenn. June 28, 1841.
Brother Randolph was also in the war but how, when, where we know not. He is not among the nine Rutherfords across the nation who made pension applications, but he was part of Capt. Morgans group along with John and Julius on April 5, 1781. (Book additions). Likely he was in the Southern Campaign. He died by Jan. 11, 1841 when his will was probated in Wythe CO., VA. (Book Additions).
Six shillings John mentioned above may also have been a brother, but this is all we know of him. A John Rutherford living in Virginia did file a pension application (S18584).
Cousin William Larkin, son of Uncle Joseph Rutherford (599), who was both of whom later came to Kentucky, was also in the struggle from 1779 to 1782 as a private in the Illinois Regiment of the Western Army, according to the 1833 VA. House of Delegates Journal. He was entitled to land but didn't claim it in Virginia for that's why he was on this list. Gen. Clarke had already gone to the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville, KY. Today) and conquered Vincennes when Larkin, as he was called in the records above, enlisted, for Gen. Clarke left in 1778. Still, he would be fighting mostly Indians and Canadians in the Western Campaignes. In 1780, Gen. Clarke was in Virginia trying to raise money for a return to the west, when Arnold invaded along the James River. So Larkin may have had Virginia Action. Finally having raised some new forces, the General returned to what is now Cincinnati and routed the Indians on August 19, 1782. After this no Indian war party ever invaded Kentucky again (Lossing, supra p. 295, vol. 2).
Interesting, Benjamin Rutherford, referred to above, and who was probably an uncle of Larkin, Archie, and Julius, had also fought Indians in Dunmore's War in 1774. Peace efforts had failed and,
"Indian relations continued to grow worse, until the government at Williamsburg was drawn definitely into the conflict. During the midsummer of 1774 both parties made ready for war, the Indians by attempting a great confederation of all the Ohio tribes, and the whites by calling out the frontier militia and by starting two divisions on the march toward the Ohio. The north Valley (Shenandoah) division, commanded by Governor Dunmore himself, was to advance by way of Fort Pitt, and the division from the south Valley, commanded by General Andrew Lewis, was to go by way of the Great Kanawha Valley. /80
The south Valley made thorough preparations, and most of the militiament eagerly fell into line. Colonel William Fleming of Botetourt commanded one regiment of the southern division and Colonel Charles Lewis, brother of Andrew, the other. The division lost little time in getting to Point Pleasant at the junction of the Ohio and Great Kahawha Rivers. There they unexpectedly met the Indians in force, under Cornstalk, and after an all-day battle, with great losses on both sides, including a heavy toll of Valley officers, the Indians retreated across the Ohio. The Shawnees and the "Long Knives" had finally met in force and fought one of the most decisive battles in the annals of Indian Warfare. The Proclamation line of 1763 was thus swept aside by the onrush of Valley pioneers."
Source: Freeman H. Hart, The Valley of Virginia in the American Revolution 1763-1789. 1942, 223 pgs. P. 79 to 80.
Thus in one family group we can see the fighting of both Indians and English. For most of the duration of the War, "Valley leaders were faced with the dual problem of furnishing soldiers for Washington's armies and of protecting their homes from frequently recurring Indian raids. The Valley was an armed camp from the beginning of the war." (Hart, Valley of VA., supra., p. 83-84).
What did they all get out of this war? Julius "was crippled in the right hip while in the army by a horse falling through a bridge with him." (Pension) Archie had a "knee mash(ed)" perhaps in the ward. (Pension). Both received $8.00 per month under the Act of 1818. As privates they were entitled to 100 acres (Carrington and Losing supra), though we only have record of Absalom using this right in Franklin CO., KY. (Absalom's pension). The early John Filson map (1784) shows land reserved for the Virginia Troops between the Green River and the state line to the south. The area to which we later find Archie moving. (See Filson Map).
How many Rutherford's were there in the Revolution? Nine later sough pensions. Randolph Rutherford and Benjamin Rutherford, brother and uncle respectively of Archie were said to be engaged, according to Kenneth Rutherford. Then there was Thomas Rutherford, a friend of Washington who ran a gun factory. General Griffith Rutherfords story is often found in old histories of the southern campaign and Rutherford CO., TN. These last two were only distant cousins at best. So there were about 14 in all.
Most importantly these 14 won Washington's benediction at the War's End that,
"Happy, Thrice happy, shall they be pronounced hereafter, who have
contributed anything, who have performed the meanest office in
erecting this stupendous fabric of freedom and empire on the broad
basis of independence, who have assisted in protecting the rights
of human nature, and establishing an asylum for the poor and oppressed of
all nations and religions."
Source: Carrington, p. 658. HQ, 4-18-1783.
In 1777, Fincastle CO., Vir. was dissolved and part became Montgomery CO., Julius, Absalom and probably Archie returned to their father's place in what is today Wythe CO., which was created in 1790.
While the war waged, John Sr. (469), his son John Jr. (598), William, Archie's father (597) , and Joseph (599) stayed in Montgomery County. In 1777, Joseph and John Jr. took the oath of allegiance September 13, a Saturday, and John Sr. on September 23, Tuesday, but not until 1779 on May 3, did William Sr. take this oath. Ft. Chiswell where he had often been a juror was captured by the British and if William lived down about there, it would have been about 50 miles up to the county seat, with Indians about. Or Wm. Sr. may have been on the Western front himself. He would have been about 52 at oath time.
Julius' younger brother, Finney, relates that upon his return from the war Julius stayed on the farm. Deducing from the fact that he first appears on the 1776 tax roll, and the ages he gave in his pension application seems to show that he was born between April 9, 1754 and July 4, 1755 and therefore Augusta CO., on Cripple Creek where his father had just bought the 428 acres tract. This would make him either 19 at enlistment or 22, and this later figure is more likely for if he was just 19, he wouldn't have appeared upon a tax list beforehand.* Thus, on return in early 1780, or late 1779, he was about 25, and according to Finney, went off to what
Is now Knox CO., TN to marry. If he left after the crops were in that would cause him to leave in 1781, in the fall. He married in 1784 to Rhoda Rutherford, the granddaughter of his great uncle Joseph (608). Finney said he was gone "some time" and brought his bride back. (Julius Pension).
On Nov. 20, 1781, Julius and Wm. Jr. were in court in Montgomery CO., declaring themselves to be on Capt. Morgan's payroll, so he wouldn't have left until after that date. Finney says he went off to what is today Knox, CO., TN. And was gone "some time" returning with his bride Rhoda. Rhoda was the granddaughter of Julius' great uncle Joseph (608). His next appearance on the tax rolls was in 1787, and from then till 1799 remains on that tax list. On October 10, 1798 he was appointed a road overseer. In 1781 he sued the estate of his grandfather, probably for debts, but he need not have been in Lincoln County when this happened. He was awarded
2 pounds (Lincoln CO. Order Bk., #3, 1786-1791, p. 426). In August, 1805 he sold 60 acres on Cripple Creek. (Annals of SW VA. P. 1365) so his move to Knox CO., TN., must have been between that time and 1814, when he made application in Knox, for a pension. There is some
possibility that he followed Absalom to Knox as well as brother Randolph, for each sold
(*His pension application relates that he said he was 71 on 1-16-1828, which would give a 1757 birthdate, and be out of line with his other two statements Probably a "slip of the tongue".)
considerable acreage on Cripple Creek about 1800 and 1803. (Book Suppl.) According to Finney (Julius pension) who also served in the Indian War for three months in 1793, Julius went to Wayne County, KY and then to Knox after a short time.
Deduction from the dates of Archie's pension application and the different ages he gave indicates that he was born between May 24 of 1754 and 1755, which like Julius would mean he was born in Augusta County, VA.. Assuming he was honorably discharged in the early months of 1779, as shown above, Archie would have been about 24 or 25. Elizabeth, his wife said she "was not acquainted with him until after his services". On Wednesday, May 8, 1782, Archie and a John Rutherford were in court in MontgomeryCO., Va to receive 6 shillings each "due him for duty in the army" (Annals of SW VA., p. 771). Then on Saturday, the 29th of June, in the same year, he married Elizabeth Akers in Washington County, VA (Eliz. Stmt. In his pension; marriage rec. there) about 60 miles to the south-west. Archie probably stayed there for he does not appear on the any roll until 1787 back up in Montgomery County, and the March following his June marriage he was sued in Washington County. (March 18,, 1787) for 120 bushels of corn by Francis Kincannon. (Annals of SW VA. P.1132). The plaintiff won, but the judge redocketed the trial and no further record appears.. Perhaps this indicates Archie was tenant farmer, Since there is no tax record of him in 1782 (i.e. for 1780 or 1781) he may have been doing the same in Montgomery County. Many years later Joseph Rutherford (763) his cousin said in support of Elizabeth's pension application that "he was well acquainted with Archibald and Elizabeth Rutherford in the State of Virginia as early as the year 1779." (pension Applic. 1845)Although Joseph was about 93 when he made this statement and may have been mistaken, it appears that he lived in Montgomery CO., VA. And was with his father in KY. By 1781 (see 598). He later started a church so it seems unlikely he would be lying. Most likely, this Joseph Rutherford knew Elizabeth Akers before Archie did and may have even introduced the two! Thus, Archie probably spent the time from his war discharge until his marriage farming someone else's land (and thus not appearing on tax rolls) and courting Elizabeth, who he married when he was 26 or 27.
Thus, during the years immediately after the war, the memorable events in the family were the marriages of Archibald, Julius and Absalom.
After Archie's marriage, he stayed in Washington CO., where his first two children, Robert (b. 1783) and Stephen, (b. July 5, 1785-deduced from his tombstone, which his brother Archie, Jr. said in his mother's pension application was accurate; Bettie B. Rutherford affirmed that Stephen was born in VA.) Two years later Archie appears on the tax roll for Montgomery CO. and on November 22, 1787 his first daughter Catherine (1025) was born. (J. Wells Vick' Rutherford History, 1925, 32 pgs., p. 2; she had access to the tombstones and hopefully derived this date from that.) So, by the Spring of 1788, Archie had 3 children, was paying taxes in Montgomery County, and was 33 or 34.
William Rutherford Sr. was also active after Archie's marriage. On Sept. 14, 1782 he had surveyed 200 acres in the "Washington Dist. Of Montgomery County," perhaps as a gift to Archie, but July 5, 1785/he assigned this to Julius, who conveyed 200 acres on Mine Mill Creek to brother Absalom Nov. 23, 1790 (Wythe Deed Book I, p. 17), who conveyed this to brother Randolph on Jan., 9, 1789 (Wythe Deed Book 2, p. 139) preparatory to their move to Knox CO. TN. Randolph then sold 100 acres on Cripple Creek to Robert Percival in 1798 (Wythe Deed Book 2, p. 141). The same day Stephen was born, (!)
After grandson Stephen was born, William at 59 became Constable of Montgomery County (1-24-1786) having been there about 12 years, and of Wythe CO. when it was formed (appointed 5-26-1790). About a month beforehand in April, 1790 he entered 200 acres and then 6 days late another 100 acres in Montgomery County. Was it necessary to hold land to be constable? William was well settled in the Wythe-Montgomery area. He was a large land owner, the county sheriff, and no doubt well known. Thus, he probably never migrated to Kentucky and in fact his name appears on the Wythe CO . tax rolls as late as 1799, when he would be about 72.
From what is now Wythe CO., Archie left his father his brothers and this security. By September, 1791, he was in Lincoln County, KY.
Apparently Archie's brothers stayed in Wythe. Kenneth Rutherford postulates 10 brothers, but we can be sure of only that Julius, Absalom, Finney, and William, Jr. were his brothers, although John (759), Randolph (756), Benjamin (757), Thomas (760), and Joseph (761) may also have been brothers.* Who else could have been the father? Seemingly 10 boys and one girl, Nancy who m. in Montgomery CO., VA.
*Confusion is caused by failure of any one to list all of the brothers, and direct statements which conflict with relationships deduced from these names being found in the same locale.
Archie did not need to name anyone to prove his war record in his pension application for his name was found on the roll. His wife did though, to establish her status as wife. For this purpose she called on Joseph, one who knew them.
Julius' was apparently lost for awhile or else the judge asked for evidence of his war record. He gave only Archie as proof of actual service. No doubt others could have been given to show they thought he was in service, but not to prove actual service. Archie was the only actual witness he gave. Finney, by his own admission in his pension application for service against the Indians in 1793 was too young to be in the Revolutionary War. Absalom as shown in the above paper, went into the Southern Campaign and only joined after Julius and Archie were discharged. Benjamin who was in Dunmore's War against the Indians in 1774 and for whom Wm. Jr. substituted 6 months in 1778 may have been an uncle (602) or a brother (774) or two people's activity. As for why Julius didn't refer to him, or the Wm. Jr. (753) or to John who was in Capt. Morgan's roll with Julius (4-5-1781), or Randolph (756), or to Thomas (760) or to Joseph (761), we know not.
There is a distinct possibility that all these 10 men were not brothers, or perhaps were just half-brothers for Archie Jr., said that, "…he recollects distinctly when his parents moved from the county of Jessamine to the county of Logan in the State of Kentucky where they continued to reside until the death of my father which occurred about the year 1839. That his mother, when he last saw her in the month of June, 1844, still lived the widow of the said Archie Rutherford dec. He further states that same A. Rutherford was the youngest of his brothers and the youngest of his parents eleven children."
The tie between Julius, Archie, Absalom and Finney is proven by direct allegations of relation to Julius, and if Wm. Sr. was the father, as is likely from Julius coming home to live on his "father's" farm, then Wm. Jr. would be the 5th brother. With 5 boys in the family there could well be 6 daughters to make up the 11.
Archie Jr. may have been wrong about being the "youngest" for he was born after his father left VA., and therefore never saw these brothers, and the statement was about 55 years later.
Yet Archie Jr. clearly couldn't have been referring to himself since he would have known about his 2 younger brothers, and he said 11. We know of only 10 children of Archie and Elizabeth. It's difficult to see how one could mess up the number in his family.
Confusion reigns, but either Archie Jr. was wrong misquoted, or Kenneth Rutherford has postulated too many boys in one family.
All this turns on the link between Archie Sr., and Julius. Are we sure that Julius was referring to the Archie Sr., we think he was?
1. There were 2 Archibald Rutherford's in the war besides our Archie Sr. (754). One from
Frederick CO., VA. (606), and the other from Goochland CO., VA. (655). Both were the
4th generation from the immigrant, Robert Sr., while Archie (754) was the 5th generation.
2. Goochland Archie's fathers were: William of Goochland (489) Adam of Goochland (365)
Robert Sr. of Essex CO. (280). This Archie's brothers and sisters were all named in the
Settlement of his father's estate and though there were indeed 11, there was no "Julius." So, this Archie must not be the one Julius mentioned.
3. Frederick CO. Archie (606) fathers were: Joseph of Essex (471), Robert Jr. of Essex (362), Robert Sr. (280). So he was a cousin of Archie (754) - the son of his great uncle Joseph Rutherford, for our Archie's grandfather John Sr. (469) was also a son of Robert Jr. (362). However this Archie was dead in 1789 in Fred. CO., VA., and Julius referred to his Kentucky Archie in 1818. Further this Frederick CO. Archie conveyed 200 acres in Frederick CO., VA., in 1785 lending credence to idea that his business was in VA, not KY. So this is not the Archie. That leaves only Archie (754) of KY.
The Rutherfords are frontier people. No other fact stands out so clear since 1140. They are always found on the extreme edge of population, whether it be Cumberland CO., Augusta CO. or Montgomery CO. People had moved into the Valley of Virginia and now the Rutherfords move out. Never had land been free during any of the colonial period, though squatter existed, to be sure. Ten shillings per 100 acres was the going price for frontier land in Virginia, but in Kentucky before 1800 the price per acre had in some places gone to $100 per acre! Contrary to popular legend, p. 65 "the Bluegrass country was never a poor man's frontier," for early speculators had bought up and resold land at exorbitant profit. It was still cheaper and freer in Kentucky and some land could be had. The lands south of the Green River had been reserved for the Revolutionary veterans of Virginia, but since so few claimed their heritage, many landless emigrants settled in this region where they were given after 1795 a preemption on up to 200 acres at $30/hundred. All over Kentucky, with the exception of the vary wealthy, few were secure in their land titles, for they "overlapped each other like shingles on a roof." (p.76) Confusion was so great that a voting system based on land ownership as in Virginia could not be used. (p.77)."
*To entice land settlement, Ky. In 1809 set 7 years as the period for adverse
settlement, and in 1811 legislated that before an occupying claimant had to
give up any land he had to be paid for any improvements. (p.81)
(Abernethy, T. P., Three virginia frontiers , 1940, 96 pgs. Being a superb series of lectures
well worth reading.)
"In the settlement of Kentucky, the poorer emigrants were able to furnish their own transportation, but the best lands had been preempted by speculators and purchasers who could pay the high prices which were demanded" (p94). Into this unusually large landless group, Archie probably went. The trail to the Holston Valley, in Lee County, where years later we find Larkin Rutherford (who may have been a brother), through Cumberland Gap, up the Wilderness Trail to Logan's Fort, Lincoln CO., KY., took about a month. Family tradition says that Archie brought his family on horseback when wild strawberries were plentiful. (J. Wells Vick told me that this is what she had been told and supposedly it had come from "Aunt Katie," but she would have been hardly 30 when they came). That horseback was used is confirmed historically cor until after 1795, that was the only way to come as the road was not wide enough for a wagon. (p.79), Three Virginia Frontiers. Strawberries prevail in late May, and Archie was on the Montgomery CO., Tax rolls in 1787, and witnessed the signature of John Rutherford in Sept., 1791. *(Lincoln CO. Deed Bk. B. p. 16) Thus, Archie and Elizabeth brought their sons Robert, 8, Stephen 5, John 2, and daughter Catherine 3 to Logan's Fort Kentucky, in May, 1791.
*Catherine was born Nov. 22, 1787 (J. Wells. Vick) and having to come in May
and be old enough to remember would probable mean 1791, at which time John
would have been born and be about 2.
Contemporary accounts of the treck reveal that it was a long and dangerous journey. From Staunton, VA., where families would gather into a caravan, to the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville) was 509 miles, and would take well more than a month. "All rode upon horses and upon other horses were placed the farming and cooking utensils, beds and bedding, wearing apparel, provisions, and last, but not least the Bibles," which were costly in those days since printing it in English was prohibited and imported Bibles were heavily taxed. "Each man and boy, carried his rifle and ammunition, and each woman her pistol, for their long journey was mostly through wilderness, and that infested by savages. Thus equipped, the emigrants took up their line of March, after bidding farewell to their weeping friends. By the time the party reached Abingdon (by which all emigrants went) they had increased (many) persons, and when they reached Bean's Station, a frontier post, (more joined them). Unincumbered horsemen were organized into two companies, one to go in front and the other in the rear, with the women and children and packhorses in the middle. There was no road, and the trail being wide enough for only one horse, the emigrants went in single file, forming a line of nearly a mile long. At the eastern base of Clinch Mountain there was the first indication of Indians prowling near them. Clinch River was swollen by recent rains, and in crossing it, (some) came near losing their lives. A party of eight horsemen overtook the emigrants at Clinch River and preceded them on the route. Measles broke out, and there was scarcely a family in the train that had not a patient to nurse. Between Clinch River and Cumberland Gap, the emigrants came upon the remains of the eight horsemen who had passed on before them. They had been tomahawked, scalped and stripped by the Indians. (The) party paused long enough to bury the remains of the unfortunate men. During the night which followed, there were unmistakable signs of Indians near the camp. The savages hooted and howled like wolves and owls till after midnight, and made an unsuccessful attempt to stampede the horses. The next morning the Indians were seen on the hills, and their signal guns were distinctly heard. A night or two afterwards, when the camp fires were extinguished, and nothing was heard but the sound of the falling rain and the occasional tramp of a horse, a sentinel discovered an Indian within twenty feet of him, and fired his gun. This alarmed the camp, and in a few minutes the whole party was under arms. No attack was made, however. In the morning Indian tracts were distinct and numerous, and some of them were sprinkled with blood, showing that the sentinel had fired with effect. An attack by the Indians was confidently expected at the narrow pass of Cumberland Gap, and every precaution was taken. (Apparently) disconcerted in their plans the Indians made no attack. At
every river to be crossed the utmost caution was observed to guard against surprise, and the Indians finally abandoned the pursuit." *Such must have been the trial of Archie, Elizabeth, Robert, Stephen, Catherine, and Baby John.
*Annuals of Augusta County, pp. 451-453. An adaptation of actual memoirs
of a trip in 1785.
They did not blaze the trail, nor go alone. Family tradition says Samuel Owens, who later married Archie's daughter Catherine, also rode along, and so these close families and probably others, formed into a caravan as related above. By June, of 1971 they would reach Logan's Fort (now Stanford, KY) and their relatives. Kentucky's first settlers were wealthy, speculators and so seems to have been the relatives they met. From Essex CO., Old John Sr. (469) hand wandered to Cumberland, Augusta, Montgomery Counties, and now into Lincoln County with his sons John Jr. (598) and Joseph (599), John Jr. (598) at the age of 46 had been paid for guarding the frontier in Lincoln CO., from March 23 - April 21, 1781, and must have liked the county for that fall he and his brother recorded right to 1100 acres, hardly before fighting had stopped in the Revolutionary War! Tuesday, the 20th of November, 1781, John Rutherford entered 400 acres on the south side of a branch of Dicks River (Lincoln CO. Entry Book 1779, p. 102). Then the following Thursday (December 6, 1781) Joseph 100 acres on the south side of a branch of Dicks Ribert (Lincoln CO., Survey Book 1, p. 109) and 200 acres adjacent to John Logan and to Boughman's Trace, which was the main road from Logan's Fort to Col. William Whitley's (Logan CO. Survey Book 1, p. 157). Between then and 1798, he was to enter more than 3,000 acres! The next Tuesday, December 11, 1781, John Jr. (598) came back and entered another 400 acres on Hanging Fork of Dicks River, adjoining Hugh Logan (Logan CO., Survey Book 1, p 115). So the first Rutherford into Kentucky were NOT poor! It was probably to one of these estates that Archie brought his family almost 10 years later.
John Jr. had a large family to care for: John Jr. Jr. (764) who married in Lincoln CO in 1790; Lettie who also married in 1790; James, who was born in Lincoln CO., near Stanford 1782 (770); Dudley, who appears in Lincoln CO., as late as 1790 and helped defend its frontier 1793, but who had moved to Green CO., by 1800; Susannah, who married 1797 Ebenezer McKinney; Sally who married 1794 Pemberton; and Joseph (763) who helped defend Lincoln's frontier in 1782 and who moved to Fayette CO., most likely just over the border between 1790 and 1795. He referred to himself as Josepf of Fayette.
Brother Joseph's (599) family was smaller, and thus less land. William Larkin (774) fought Indians to defend Lincoln, and married Mrs. Hamilton July 6, 1790. Another John, the son of Joseph. And Joseph Jr., (772) who was probably a witness to the family's next great migration down the Green River.
There may have been others when Archie arrived for some names haven't been fitted into a structure yet. Alexander Rutherford payed tax in Green CO., 1800. There was a John Rutherford in Bourbon CO., 1800. A Nancy Rutherford married James Pollard 1788 in Lincoln CO.
A Catey Rutherford was sworn as the administrator of old John Rutherford's estate in 1789 and had to post 300 E bond. She married John Smith in 1794, but may have been either a child or grandchild of the John who had come all this way from Essex CO., VA.
John Sr., Archie's grandfather probably died before Archie came to Kentucky, if he came in 1791. Before he died though he was married, probably for the third time and at the age of 97 to Mary Simpson on Thursday, September 7, 1786. (It almost seems that the court house was open on Tuesday and Thursdays only.).
Uncle John (598) had the most land, at first anyway and this is probably where Archie and his family first stayed, for space and need would be greatest there. Uncle John's youngest son was cousin James (770) to whom Uncle John gave this land in 1799. In 1826, long after Archie had left for Logan County, James sold it to his brother-in-law Benjamin Huntsman, and moved to Missouri, but Judge Huntsman must have soon sold it too since he took the testimony in Randolph CO., MO., which Archie's wife need in 1845 to get a pension!
Archie arrived in the spring, we postulate, and that fall, in September, 1791, he witnesses the mark of his uncle (or perhaps his cousin). (Lincoln County Deed Book b. p.16) In June, of 1794 he was ordered to pay 4 shillings to William Banton for jury duty substitution. (Lincoln County Order Book 1793-1798, p. 137).
The next reference to Archie is that he is in "in Jessamine, 1799" (Ermina Jett Darnell, Forks of Elkhorn Church, 1946; being derived from the minute book of a Baptist Church on the road from Frankfort to Lexington from 1788 on) and on the tax records for Jessamine in 1780. A word is in order on the religious belief of the Rutherfords. From 1689 (The Toleration Act), one could practice his religion in VA, though he still had to attend services of the Anglican Church. It will be remembered that old John Sr. (469) had been ordered to procession Cumberland County precinct, in 1751. This was the secular function of biennially checking the boundary lines between plantations or holdings and was filed only by land holders. But Augusta and Montgomery Counties were different.
"From its earliest settlement the Valley of Virginia had furnished a haven to
dissenting religious groups, and its people were predominantly dissenters, even
though the region continued to be under the control of the Anglican government at Williamsburg. Since these dissenters were a buffer against the Indians, they
enjoyed a more favorable legal position than did other Virginia dissenters. Not
less than six dissenting sects or denominations were active in the Valley of the
Colonial period, and ranked as following: Presbyterians, Lutherans, German
Reformed, Baptists, Quakers, and Mennonites." (Hart, supra, p34.)
To be Episcopalian in the Valley in 1776 was to be in the minority. (Ibid. p.35)
Whether the family continued to be Episcopal can't be told, but this next reference to Archie connects him with a Baptist group in 1799. There was a Baptist Church called "Forks of Elkhorn", in which there was a John, Dinah, Elizabeth, Polly and Walker Rutherford. The minutes of the church just read, "Archibald Rutherford was in Jessamine, 1799." Then, in Jan., 1817, Uncle John (598) with whom Archie at first probably lived, his son Joseph (763) and another son James (770) among others decided to organize a new congregation. They met in Shelton Rutherford's home near Stanford, and near the Fayette-Jessamine CO., line. Shelton was the first born of Joseph of Fayette (763). They decided to organize the Church of Christ at Providence, February 25, 1817, which would be a Tuesday. So either the date is wrong or this was a date to start building etc. The building was located at Nicholasville, and in time became the Christian Church and more recently the Church of Christ again. The following April 2, 1818, a Saturday, "The church met and after singing and prayer proceeded to business.
Archie had left this region about 7 years before, but these were the people he had lived with and Archie's daughter Catherine left a sizeable gift to start a building for the Church of Christ in Russellville. From at least the time of Stephen, Archie's son, thisLogan County branch of the family has been unanimously and actively a part of the Church of Christ. Thus it seems that Archie's family was first Catholic (in old Scotland), then Episcopal, then perhaps Presbyterian or Baptist, then Baptist for sure, then Church of Christ, in which it continues to this day.
So it appears that Archie probably changed from the Baptist to the Church of Christ after he went into Jessamine County, which was about 1799. While Archie and his family were still in Lincoln County, events destined to change their lives occurred. As mentioned, Archie was probably living at first with his uncle John (598), but apparently there was another uncle who had come, Uncle Joseph (599). This uncle had a son William Larkin, who fought Indians and then married in Lincoln County in 1790, and another son John, who in 1801 was also a member of the Baptist Church, Forks of Elkhorn. A third son Joseph Jr. (772) and a Benjamin and a James Rutherford probably influenced Archie greatly. Whether Benjamin and James were uncles, or cousins is not known, but they were active in the 1790's, which would be appropriate for Archie's generation. On October 20, 1796, James Rutherford had 100 acres surveyed "on the west side of Muddy Creek." (Logan CO. Survey Book A, p. 38) Then on the 28th, a Benjamin also had 100 acres surveyed by a certificate numbered 416, just one less than 417 of James above. It too was "on the waters of Muddy River," and was witnessed by James Rutherford ( Survey BK. A, p. 148). A year later on October 9, 1797, Benjamin had another 100 acres surveyed and Joseph Rutherford witnessed. This must have been Joseph Jr. (772), for Joseph Sr. (599) was very active in Lincoln CO. buying those 3,000 acres, and the other Joseph of Fayette (763) had already gone up to Fayette CO., where he became active in church. So this infers that the first Logan County settlers were brothers of Joseph Jr., or cousins. At least all would have been of Archie's generation. This 100 acres was "on the waters of Bigger Clifty Creek (survey Bk. B, p. 19) and was on the same creek as another 100 acres which Benjamin bought May 11, 1799. (Deed book A, p. 259) Benjamin then had 300 acres. To help him with it all, or because he was too old (i.e. if he had been Archie's uncle) he bought a slave 24 years old, Jan., 21, 1799 (1804 possibly?) (Deed bk. A, p. 262). James also stayed on for in the Logan County Order Book (A-1, p. 160) we find an 1800 entry appointing a road overseer from "Ja. Rutherford's old place to Baggs Ferry…" But March 25, 1806, James sold 100 acres "on the west side of Muddy Creek" to Joseph Anderson (Logan Deed Book 2, p. 162). In 1796 when these two, who were clearly related to Joseph Rutherford, first came to Logan County, there were only 845 men in this whole county, much of which had been reserved for Virginia Revolutionary War Veterans (Coffman, The Story of Logan County, p. 50-52).
Benjamin's surveyed had been on the west side of Muddy River and his purchase of the waters of Bigger Clifty Creek, as had one survey. It is thus quite possible that his estate was between these two streams, which are no more than 10 miles apart. We have no record of further activity, but that is probably because Muhlenberg County in which area Clifty Creek lies, was formed in 1798. In 1810, a Benjamin Rutherford appears in Butler County, which was formed in that year and bordered on the east side of Muddy River Then in 1820 he or his namesake, appears in Todd County, which was formed 1819 bordering upon Logan and into which Clifty Creek may have run.
No further word is heard from Archie in Jessamine County, but his son, Archie Jr. relates that he "recollects distinctly when his parents moved from the County of Jessamine to the County of Logan in the State of Kentucky, where they continued to reside until the death of my father which occurred about the year 1839." (Archie's pension) Joseph of Fayette, who may have introduced Archie and Elizabeth, who had organized the Church of Christ in Providence, said many years later, after he had moved to Missouri in the 1830's that Archie and Elizabeth were "living together as man and wife until the year 1810, which was the last time he ever saw them, the said A. and E. Rutherford having removed to Logan County, KY. " (Archie Pension). His brother Julius, in Anderson County, Tennessee in July, 1818 said "Archibald Rutherford, if alive is…resident in Kentucky, but what part he knoweth not," (Julius' Pension) yet in 1789 he had sued Catherine Rutherford admx. Of grandfather John's estate, and would know Archie to be in Lincoln, unless he also knew he had moved. Bettie Rutherford, the sage, wrote that "Thomas V. Rutherford was born in Logan County, Kentucky, December 15th, 1810" (Bettie's History). Thus, Archie and Elizabeth moved their family once again in 1810. Since Benjamin Rutherford had 300 acres, a slave named Isaac, he may have had space and need. If so, their first stop would have been on Bigger Clifty Creek in what is today Southeastern Muhlenberg County.
In 1816, Stephen Rutherford sold 2 ½ acres on Whipporwill Creek which in the southern part of Logan County, and in 1821 he mortgaged 200 acres on this same creek. Yet there is no record of where he got this land. These actions infer a "presence" in Logan before these dates and perhaps point to an unrecorded deed (unlikely in 1800) or a will from Benjamin Rutherford to his cousins.
1810 marks a new epic in the wanderings of the Rutherford. In this area they were to entrench and grow.
The 1810 census shows the following entry in Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky: John Rutherford,
1m 10-15 (William ?);
2m 16-25 (Granville & James);
1m 26-44 (John);
The 1820 census shows the following entry in Campbellsville, Green County, Kentucky: John Rutherford,
 Bourbon County Tax List
 Bourbon County Tax List
1796 Bourbon Co Ky Tax List
John was probably also the John Rutherford listed in on the tax list in Franklin Co., KY in 1801. He may have also been the one in Lincoln Co.? His father, Joseph Rutherford, also to Franklin County from Lincoln) sometime between 1790 and 1799.
Franklin is two counties west of Bourbon [Scott is between them]. Frankfort is in Franklin, but close to the borders with Woodford and Anderson.
 Bourbon County Tax List
 Bourbon County Tax List
 _______ Walker???? Just because of son's name. James's daughter, Virginia, named a daughter Mary Dyneshia
Rutherford, Joseph b. 1730.doc
Rutherford, Joseph b. 1730.doc
Rutherford, John b. 1765.doc
Rutherford, John b. 1765.doc
Rutherford, John b. 1765.doc
Rutherford, John b. 1765.doc
Rutherford, John b. 1765.doc
Root & Branch
Root & Branch
Rutherford, Joseph b. 1730.doc
_Jacob (Walingen) WALICHS _+ | (1599 - 1657) _Symon Jacobse VAN WINKLE _| | (1653 - 1732) | | |_Tryntje JACOBS ___________ | (1620 - 1677) | |--Marguerite Simese VAN WINKLE | (1676 - ....) | _Claas Arianse SIP ________ | | |_Anntje Arianse SIP _______| (1666 - 1723) | |___________________________
Perry County, IN Marriages - 1852-1861